Blog Posts

19 May, 2019

Have the Reading Wars Become Research Wars?

Teacher question: Although the Reading Wars might be over (somewhat), I can’t shake the feeling that we’ve entered the era of Research Wars. What’s a literacy coach to do?  Shanahan response: I think you’re onto something. I’ve been seeing the same thing. Of course, the original “reading wars” back in the 1990s were research wars, too. In those days, one side argued kids would learn to read best with the least amount of explicit teaching. According to them, kids could learn decoding and how to make sense of text—and pretty much anything else that might be needed—if student motivation were sufficiently high and the tasks and texts were sufficiently authentic. The way to ...

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04 May, 2019

How to Make Reading Workshop More Effective

Teacher question: In an effort to streamline the workshop model in our district, I am looking for your stance on focused independent reading and/or any articles that you have written that support the importance of students reading at school with a specific focus in mind rather than "reading just to read"?   Shanahan response:  Unfortunately, there aren’t studies of this. People who are claiming that “focused independent reading” works better than having kids just reading on their own are theorizing. I can tell you that the pattern of studies that I’ve reviewed over the years suggests that efforts to teach reading through kids’ reading practice tend to be most effective when they look ...

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27 April, 2019

Red Shirting Kindergarten Kids, Good Idea or Bad

Teacher question: We place children in different kindergarten (or prekindergarten) tracks based upon their performances on a readiness screener—and in consultation with parents. However, our state now has a “Read by Grade Three” law, which requires retention in third grade for students who don’t meet that standard.  We have several students who are very young, meaning they are barely 5, who scored rather high on our placement test. We also have a group of students that are older and scored low on the same test. We are concerned about both groups. We would really like to know the research behind kindergarten placement and what the best practice is to help us ...

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20 April, 2019

My Two-Handed Opinion on Teaching with Novels

Teacher question: I've been thinking a lot about a response to teachers who only want to teach whole-class novels. When I say whole-class novels, what I see most often is the traditional approach most high school teachers take. Reading at home, lectures, comparative reading (but with very little instructional support). Also, what do you offer as a suggestion for teachers who are willing to rethink their novel practice (so long as they still get to teach novels)? Shanahan response: Lyndon Johnson used to talk about “two-handed economists.” He’d ask economists for their advice, and their responses were always, “Well on the one hand… but on the other hand….” Your question makes me feel ...

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06 April, 2019

How Not to Respond to a Lack of Responsiveness to Intervention

Teacher question: Here is my dilemma.  My administration has decided that if a student has 3 or 4 points of data on an ORF (Oral Reading Fluency) graph that shows they are not making progress then the entire reading intervention program must be changed.  It doesn't matter to them if the student had been making progress for months before in the same program.  I was told by my principal that our school district is being sued because of RTI.  When a student is not making progress as evidenced by the ORF and the reading specialist doesn't change the program then the school district is at risk of being sued.   The ...

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23 March, 2019

Is it a good idea to teach the three cueing systems in reading?

Teacher question: There is a big argument in my new district over whether or not it is a good idea to teach children to use the three cueing systems. What do you think?  Why don’t you ever write about the cueing systems? Shanahan’s response: I don’t write about them because I’m not a fiction writer. Don’t get me wrong, cueing systems exist, but their value in reading instruction is a magnificent work of the imagination. How do we read words? Perhaps we just guess dumbly when we see a word. For example, guess what this word is: Þßàm¤. Obviously, that can’t be what readers do. There are far too many words for that ...

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17 March, 2019

Does instruction in text structure improve reading comprehension?

Teacher question: I was wondering what the research says (or if you could point me in the right direction to find it) about explicit instruction for nonfiction text structure. Specifically, English Language Learners. Shanahan response: Thank you, thank you, thank you!!! I’ve been waiting for this question for almost three years. That’s because there have been several fascinating studies on this topic. This question focuses attention on an important current controversy: My colleagues Dan Willingham and E.D. Hirsch have made a strong case for focusing heavily on content to support reading comprehension—rather than teaching comprehension. How much should we focus on reading comprehension instruction? Should we aim to increase kids’ knowledge of the world alone ...

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09 March, 2019

Which Is Best, Pull-Out or Push-In Interventions?

Teacher question: My district is looking to improve our current intervention model. Currently, our reading interventionists operate on a pull-out model. However, we have heard that a push-in model can be be more effective so are interested in moving in that direction. What does the research say about the effectiveness of pull-out versus push-in for reading intervention? If one is more effective than the other, what would that entail?   Shanahan response: When people tell you that you should adopt a model or approach that ...

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23 February, 2019

Should We Administer Weekly Tests Linked to Standards?

Teacher question: My district instituted a weekly "checkpoint" (a short passage and multiple-choice assessment aligned to our standardized test). Teachers are required to give this, and then break it down by standard in a meeting with a coach. I've argued that these tests are likely not measuring what they think they are. They believe that these can tell teachers whether students are mastering certain standards and questions. We have a large proportion of students below grade level. I'm concerned that valuable teaching time, focusing on working with complex texts, is going to be spent on testing, and that the nature of the ...

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15 February, 2019

Early Identification: Predicting Reading Disabilities and Dyslexia

Teacher question: Prevention of dyslexia an other reading problems should be everyone’s number one priority. Why isn’t their more emphasis on the early identification of reading problems, before they have a chance to ruin children’s lives? Shanahan response: In 2018. I was asked to edit an issue of Perspectives of Language and Literacy devoted to this issue. Below is the introduction to that issue and at the end I have included a link so you can follow up on any of the other articles in this issue by an impressive array of scholars who know a lot about the early identification of reading problems. When I was a young teacher, I taught children ...

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One of the world’s premier literacy educators.

He studies reading and writing across all ages and abilities. Feel free to contact him.
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