Reference List for Improving Reading

  • reading Improve Reading Achievement amount of reading within instruction amount of reading
  • 29 February, 2008

I often make presentations about the key elements for improving reading achievement.

For those of you who want to dip into the original research that I used, I have provides some citations below. This is just a partial list -- there are many more studies available on each of these topics supporting these basic ideas.


American College Testing. (2006). Reading between the lines. Iowa City: American College Testing.

Carroll, J.B. (1963). A model of school learning. Teachers College Record, 723–733.

Cooper, H. (2001). Summer school: Research-based recommendations for policy makers. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Cooper, H., Nye, B., Charlton, K., Lindsay, J., &; Greathouse, S. (1996). The effects of summer vacation on achievement test scores: A narrative and meta-analytic review. Review of Educational Research, 66, 227–268. Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Pastall, C. A. (2006). Review of Educational Research, 76, 1-62.

Cooper, H. Robinson, J. C., &; Patall, E. A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, 1987-2003. Review of Educational Research, 76(1), 1-62.

Filby, N.N., &; Cahen, L.S. (1985). Teacher accessibility and student attention. In C.W. Fisher &; D.C. Berliner (Eds.), Perspectives on instructional time (pp. 203–215). New York: Longman.

Frazier, J.A., &; Morrison, F.J. (1998). The influence of extended-year schooling on growth of achievement and perceived competence in early elementary schooling. Child Development, 69, 495–517.

Frederick, W. C. The use of classroom time in high schools above or below the median reading score. Urban Education, 11(4), 459-464.

Fusaro, J. A. (1997). The effects of full-day kindergarten on student achievement: A meta-analysis. Child Study Journal, 27(4), 269-279.

Heyns, B. (1978). Summer learning and the effects of schooling. New York: Academic Press.

Smith, B.A. (1998). It’s about time: Opportunities to learn in Chicago’s elementary schools. Chicago: Consortium on Chicago School Research.

Stallings, J.A., & Mohlmna, G.G. (1982). Effective use of time in secondary reading classrooms. ERIC Document 216 343.


Carbonaro, W. J., &; Gamoran, A. (2002). The production of achievement inequality in high school English. American Educational Research Journal, 39, 801-827.

Ehri, L.C., Nunes, S.R., Stahl, S., & Willows, D. (2001). Systemic phonics instruction helps students learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 71, 393–447.

Ehri, L.C., Nunes, S.R., Willows, D.M., Schuster, B.V., Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z., &; Shanahan, T. (2001). Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta-analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 36, 250—287.

Graham, S., &; Perin, D. (2007). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for adolescent students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 445-476.

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Reports of the subgroups. [NIH Publication No. 00-4754]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 

Schmidt, W., Houang, R., &; Cogan, L. (2002). A coherent curriculum: The case of mathematics. American Educator, Summer, 1–18.

Stahl, S.A., &; Fairbanks, M.M. (1986). The effects of vocabulary instruction: A model-based meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 56, 72–110.

Trabasso, T., & Bouchard, E. (2001). Teaching readers how to comprehend text strategically. In C. C. Block & M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension instruction: Research-based practices. New York: Guilford.

Walker, D.F., & Schaffarzick, J. (1974). Comparing curricula. Review of Educational Research, 44, 83–111.


Brown, R., Pressley, M., Van Meter, P., & Schuder, T. (1996). A quasi-experimental validation of transactional strategies instruction with low-achieving second-grade readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 18–37.

Darling-Hammond, L. (1999). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. University of Washington: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy.

Duffy, G.G., Roehler, L.R., Sivan, E., Rackliffe, G., Book, C., Meloth, M.S., Vavrus, L.G., Wesselman, R., Putnam, J., & Bassiri, D. (1987). Effects of explaining the reasoning associated with using reading strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 347–368.

Jacob, B. A., & Lefgren, L. (2002). The impact of teacher training on student achievement: quasi-experimental evidence from school reform efforts in Chicago. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

McGill-Franzen, A., Yokoi, L., & Brooks, G. (1999). Putting books in the classroom seems necessary but not sufficient. Journal of Educational Research, 93, 67–74.

Moats, L.C., & Foorman, B.R. (2003). Measuring teachers’ content knowledge of language and reading. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 23–45.

Ross, J. A. (1992). Teacher efficacy and the effects of coaching on student achievement. Canadian Journal of Education, 17, 51–65.

Roth McDuffie, A., & Mather, M. (2006). Reification of instructional materials as part of the process of developing problem?based practices in mathematics education. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 12, 435-459.


Casserly, M. (2003). Case studies of how urban school systems improve student achievement. Washington, DC: Council for Great Cities Schools.

Hallinger, P., Bickman, L., & Davis, K. (1996). School context, principal leadership, and student reading achievement. Elementary School Journal, 96, 527–549.

Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (1996). Reassessing the principal’s role in school effectiveness: A review of empirical research, 1980-1995. Educational Administration Quarterly, 32, 5–44.

Leithwood, K. A., & Montgomery, D. J. (1982). The role of the elementary school principal in program improvement. Review of Educational Research, 52, 309–339.


Braun, H. (2004). Reconsidering the impact of high stakes testing. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 12(1), 1-43.

Center for Educational Policy. (2005, July). NCLB: Narrowing the curriculum? Washington, DC: Center for Educational Policy.

Marchant, G.F., Paulson, S.E., & Shunk, A. (2006). Relationship between high-stakes testing policies and student achievement after controlling for demographic factors in aggregated data. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 14(30), 1-34.

Meisels, S. J., Atkins-Burnett, S., Xue, Y., Nicholson, J., Bickel, D. D., & Son, S. H. (2003). Creating a system of accountability: The impact of instructional assessment on elementary children's achievement test scores. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11(9), 1-19.


Alexander, K.L., Entwisle, D.R., & Dauber, S.L. (1994). On the success of failure: A reassessment of the effects of retention in the primary grades. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Anderson, L.M., Evertson, C.M., & Brophy, J.E. (1979). An experimental study of effective teaching in first-grade reading groups. Elementary School Journal, 79, 193–223.

Biddle, B. J., & Berliner, D. C. ( ). What research says about small classes & their effects. San Francisco: WestEd.

Jimerson, S. R. (2001). Meta-analysis of grade retention research: Implications for practice in the 21st century. School Psychology Review, 30(3), 420-437.

Nye, B., Hedges, L. V., & Konstantopoulos, S. (2000). The effects of small classes on academic achievement: The results of the Tennessee class size experiment. American Educational Research Journal, 37(1), 123-151.


Baumann, J. F., & Heubach, K. M. (1996). Do basal readers deskill teachers? A national survey of educators’ use and opinions of basals. Elementary School Journal, 96(5), 511-525.

Blok, H., Oostdam, R., Otter, M. E., & Overmaat, M. (2002). Computer-assisted instruction in support of beginning reading instruction: A review. Review of Educational Research, 72(1), 101–130.

Bond, G. L, Dykstra, R., Clymer, T., & Summers, E. G. (1997). The Cooperative Research Program in First-Grade Reading Instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 32 (4), 345-427.

Freeman, D. J., & Porter, A. C. (1989). Do textbooks dictate the content of mathematics instruction in elementary schools? American Educational Research Journal, 26(3), 403-421.

O’Connor, R. E., Bell, K. M., Harty, K. R., Larkin, L. K., Sackor, S. M., & Zigmond, N. (2002). Teaching reading to poor readers in the intermediate grades: A comparison of text difficulty. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(3), 474-485.


Elbaum, B., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M., & Moody, S. W. (1999). Grouping practices and reading outcomes for students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 65(3),

O’Connor, R. E., Fulmer, D., Harty, K. R., & Bell, K. M. (2005). Layers of reading intervention in kindergarten through third grade: Changes in teaching and student outcomes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 440–455.

O’Connor, R. E. Harty, K. R., & Fulmer, D. (2005). Tiers of intervention kindergarten through third grade. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(6), 532-538.

Shanahan, T., & Beck, I. (2006). Effective literacy teaching for English-language learners. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing literacy in second-language learners. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S., Kouzekanani, K., Bryant, D. P., Dickson, S., & Blozis, S. Reading instruction grouping for students with reading difficulties. Remedial and Special Education, 24(5), 301-315.


Bus, A. G., van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Pellegrini, A. D. (1995). Joint book reading makes for success in learning to read: A meta-analysis on intergenerational transmission of literacy. Review of Educational Research, 65(1), 1-21.

 Jeynes, W. H. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education, 40(3), 237-269.

Kim, J. S. (2007). The effects of a voluntary summer reading intervention on reading activities and reading achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 505-515.

Senechal, M., & Young, . (2006). The effect of family literacy interventions on children’s acquisition of reading from kindergarten to grade 3: A meta-analytic review. Review of Educational Research.


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Reference List for Improving Reading


One of the world’s premier literacy educators.

He studies reading and writing across all ages and abilities. Feel free to contact him.