Showing posts with label Barack Obama. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Barack Obama. Show all posts

Thursday, September 6, 2012

Literacy and the Presidency 2012


A little more than four years ago, I blogged about the literacy policies of Barak Obama, John McCain, and Hilary Clinton. Unlike George W. Bush and Bill Clinton, these candidates had little to say about reading instruction. Hillary had a plan for preschool education that Obama triangulated, and McCain clung to school choice with the tenacity he exhibited in a Vietnamese prison. Obama criticized “No Child Left Behind,” but not for the same reasons that my educator friends were against it (he decried it at the time for lacking sufficient financial support or enough testing).

This year it isn't worth bothering with that kind of column. The president’s education efforts are well known (more charter schools, more teacher evaluation, more testing, more accountability-rhetoric paired with lots of NCLB waivers relaxing actual accountability demands), while Mitt Romney clings to choice (more charter schools, more vouchers, etc.) in place of education policy.

The problem with the nostrums put forth by either candidate is that none of these is likely to have any real impact on student learning.

IES studied charter schools and found that, indeed, some were better than public schools, but overall there were no performance differences when the students' starting points were accounted for. Vouchers have not done so well either.

And, while you can find some positive studies on large-scale accountability assessments, the advantages have been tiny and inconsistent. If high-stakes testing is helping, its benefits do not match its costs. 

I very much like the idea of evaluations aimed at measuring a teacher’s impact on learning, but such schemes are not ready for prime time. Arne Duncan touted such a system in Chicago, but this scheme was never scrutinized by others. Let’s face it. Such analysis is extremely complex and getting it right is more an aspirational goal than an immediate reality. (By all means, invest in studies on such evaluations, but start with credible research rather than pressuring states into adopting schemes not even yet half baked).

No point in reviewing these candidate’s literacy plans this time around because neither provides any. Romney wants to cut to education funding and Obama doesn’t, but given the nation’s debts, cuts are sure to be made no matter who is elected. Obama started his first administration by cutting the National Institute for Literacy and funding for programs such as Reach Out and Read, the National Writing Center, and Reading is Fundamental; why would expect anything different this time around?

The research is clear: If you want to raise literacy achievement increase the amount and quality of teaching and ensure that the right things are taught. Investing in longer school days and school years and providing lots of opportunities to learn beyond the boundaries of traditional schooling makes sense. As do investments in curriculum design and teacher education. Neither candidate is emphasizing these basic, old-fashioned, research-proven approaches and neither is likely to take steps that will improve literacy achievement in the U.S.       

Monday, May 11, 2009

President Obama Proposes New Literacy Cuts

On May 7, President Barack Obama told the press that he was attempting to negotiate $17 billion in program cuts. Among the programs that he slated for abolishment are the National Institute for Literacy and Even Start, a family literacy program.

A senior administration official announced on May 6, that Even Start was ineffective in improving the literacy levels of young children:

"And then finally as another example of a program that the administration supports the goals of but that the evidence suggests is not working very well -- Even Start. Even Start is a early education -- early childhood education program -- and obviously the President and the administration feel very strongly that early childhood education done in a high-quality way is crucially important and have provided additional funds both through the Recovery Act and in the budget that we will be releasing tomorrow for early childhood education.However, a variety of studies of Even Start have suggested that that program does not work well. The most recent evaluation, for example, found out of 41 outcomes that were measured between families in the program and families that were not, that there was only a difference in outcomes on 38 out of -- I'm sorry, there was no difference on 38 out of the 41 outcomes.So we are proposing that Even Start be eliminated even while we are investing in other programs that do work, including Early Head Start and Head Start."
http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Background-Briefing-On-Terminations-Reductions-and-Savings-in-the-2010-Budget/

On May 7, the President himself made the following remarks as the explanation for ending the National Institute for Literacy:

"Some programs may have made sense in the past -- but are no longer needed in the present. Other programs never made any sense; the end result of a special interest's successful lobbying campaign. Still other programs perform functions that can be conducted more efficiently, or are already carried out more effectively elsewhere in the government....

"Another example is the National Institute for Literacy. Now, I strongly support initiatives that promote literacy -- it's critical -- but I oppose programs that do it badly. Last year, nearly half of the funding in this program was spent on overhead. So we've proposed cutting the $6 million for this program in favor of supporting literacy efforts within the Department of Education which use tax dollars more effectively and wisely."

http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-the-President-on-Reducing-Spending-in-the-Budget/

These are just proposals, of course, but along with the recent cuts to Reading First, literacy education has been taking it on the chin. Obviously we'll have to wait to see if these latest proposals lead to real budget losses in reading. President George W. Bush tried to do away with Even Start for the same reasons, and Democrats in Congress howled about his lack of caring for the needs of adults and children living in poverty. Of course, they won't cast Obama as a Grinch for doing exactly the same thing, but that doesn't mean they'll give him the cuts he wants either (Congressional Democrats haven't really gone along with the Obama agenda at all, except when it has overlapped with their own).

The NIFL cuts are different. It doesn't provide funds for program delivery to students, and without a full-time director (and a board whose terms have expired--including mine), it has neither constituents nor supporters likely to step up to save it. Originally, proponents of NIFL put it into the law so that there would be a coordinating agency for the diverse efforts of the federal government. There was a lot of dissatisfaction with programs like those offered by the Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE); too many people not reached by the programs, too much overlap between federal programs, and among federal and state programs, etc. The idea was that NIFL would study the system, monitor the delivery, and provide leadership since it was to be operated directly under the Secretaries of Education, Labor, and Health and Human Services. It was even required to report directly to Congress.

Sadly, NIFL never took on the duties envisioned for it and ended up doing odd jobs on literacy (some of them good, some not so good, but no real programmatic responsibilities like those envisioned for it in the enabling legislation). They recognized that no one wants a watch dog looking over their shoulder, so they gave into the resistance and just didn't bother.

The Clinton administration tolerated NIFL, as long as it didn't try to do it's job. Although NIFL is supposed to have a board of advisors with staggered terms, the Clintons left office with all of the advisor posts open making sure that no continuity could be accomplished.

The Bush administration both made it better and worse. In NCLB, Bush expanded NIFL responsibilities giving it duties for getting research-based literacy information to the schools and the public. It carried out those duties spectacularly well, showing an ability to do high caliber work without as much overhead and bureaucracy as the departments themselves. (This was useful because NIFL could respond more quickly and do some things the departments couldn't do.) It's finest hour came when it resisted great administration pressure to release misleading information to help those who were corrupting Reading First.

But the Bushies did some things that kept NIFL from ever righting itself. Instead of having NIFL continue to report to the Secretaries as it was supposed to, they kicked it to OVAE. Yes, that's right: the major agency that was supposed to be watched by NIFL was the one that NIFL had to gain approval from. NIFL couldn't even release its report to Congress without OVAE liking the report. Then Bush, too, left office, without making sure that NIFL either had a director or an operating board. Obama could rebuild it, of course, but that would take effort, and so Obama wants to dump it. Why would he want a watchdog agency causing problems within his administration.

The problems that NIFL was supposed to address still exist. Adult literacy programs continue to be funded by Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, the Bureau of Prisons, and Homeland Security. These programs are failing to address the needs of most older Americans who have inadequate literacy skills. There is no coordinated policy to ensure that these programs, along with those funded by the states, are making a dent in the nation's adult literacy needs.

Despite massive and unprecedented increases in government spending, including in educational spending on Title I and other programs with poor track records, Obama and Congressional leaders have continued to hack away at federal support for literacy. Let's hope that in the next version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act that some of that money will be put back. Fingers crossed.

Saturday, August 9, 2008

Rubber Rulers and State Accountability Testing in Illinois

Much has been made in recent years of the political class’s embrace of the idea of test-based accountability for the schools. Such schemes are enshrined in state laws and NCLB. On the plus side, such efforts have helped move educators to focus on outcomes more than we traditionally have. No small change, this. Historically, when a student failed to learn it was treated as a personal problem—something beyond the responsibility of teachers or schools. That was fine, I guess, when “Our Miss Brooks” was in the classroom and teachers were paid a pittance. Not much public treasure was at risk, and frankly low achievement wasn’t a real threat to kids’ futures (with so many reasonably-well-paying jobs available at all skills levels). As the importance and value of doing well has changed, so have the demands for accountability.

Sadly, politicos have been badly misled on the accuracy of tests, and technically achievement testing has just gotten really complicated—well beyond the scope of what most legislative education aides can handle.
And so, here in Illinois we have a new test scandal brewing (requiring the rescoring of about 1 million). http://www.suntimes.com/news/education/1099086,CST-NWS-tests09.article

Two years ago Illinois adopted a new state test. This test would be more colorful and attractive and would have some formatting features that would make it more appealing to the kids who had to take it. What about the connection of the new test with the test it was to replace? Not to worry, the state board of education and Pearson publishing’s testing service were on the game: they were going to equate the new test with the old statistically so the line of growth or decline would be unbroken, and the public would know if schools were improving, languishing, or slipping down.

A funny thing happened, however: test scores jumped immediately. Kids in Illinois all of a sudden were doing better than ever before. Was it the new tests? I publicly opined that it likely was; large drops or gains in achievement scores are unlikely, especially without any big changes in public policy or practice. The state board of education, the testing companies, and even the local districts chimed in saying how “unfair” it was that anyone would disparage the success of our school kids. They claimed there was no reason to attribute the scores sudden trending up to the coincidental change in tests, and frankly they were not happy about kill-joys like me who would dare question their new success (it was often pointed out that teachers were working very hard—the Bobby Bonds’ defense: I couldn’t have done anything wrong since I was working hard).

Now after two years of that kind of thing, Illinois started using a new form of this test. The new form was statistically equated with the old form, so it could not possibly have any different results. Except that it did. Apparently, the scores came back this summer, much lower than they had been during the past two years. So much lower, in fact, that the educators recognized that it could not possibly be due to a real failure of the schools, but it must be a testing problem. Magically, the new equating was found to be screwed up (a wrong formula apparently). Except, Illinois officials have not yet released any details about how the equating was being done. Equating can get messed up by computing the stats incorrectly, but they also can be influenced by how, when, and from whom these data are collected.

It’s interesting that when scores rise the educational community is adamant that it must be due to their successes, but when they fall—as they apparently did this year in Illinois, it must be a testing problem.
Illinois erred in a number of ways, but so have many states in this regard.

The use of a single form of a single measure administered to large numbers of children in order to make important public policy decisions is foolish. It turns out there are many forms of the test Illinois is using. It is foolish that they didn’t use multiple forms simultaneously (like they would have if it had been a research study), as this can help to do away with their “rubber ruler” problem. Sadly, conflicting purposes for testing programs have us locked into a situation where we’re more likely to make mistakes than to get it right.

I’m a fan of testing (yes, I’ve worked on NAEP, ACT, and a number of commercial tests), and am a strong proponent of educational accountability. It makes no sense, however, to try to do this kind of thing with single tests. It isn’t even wise to test every child. Public accountability efforts need to focus their attention on taking a solid overall look at performance on multiple measures without trying to get too detailed about the information on individual kids. Illinois got tripped up when they changed from testing schools to testing kids (teachers didn’t think kids would try hard enough if they weren’t at risk themselves, so our legislator went from sampling the state to testing every kid—of course, if you want individually comparable data it only makes sense to test kids on the same measure).

Barack Obama has called for a new federal accountability plan that will make testing worthwhile to teachers by providing individual diagnostic information. That kind of plan sounds good, but ultimately it will require a lot more individual testing, with single measures (as opposed to multiple alternative measures). Instead of getting a clearer or more efficient picture for accountability purposes—and one less likely to be flawed by the rubber ruler problem, it can’t help but being muddled as in Illinois. This positive-sounding effort will be more expensive and will result in a less picture in the long run.

Accountability testing aimed at determining how well public institutions are performing would be better constructed along the lines of the National Assessment (which uses several forms of a test simultaneously with samples of students representing the states and the nation. NAEP has to do some fancy statistical equating, too, but this is more likely to be correct when a several overlapping forms of the test are used each year. By not trying to be all things to all people, they manage to do a good job of letting the public and policymakers know how are kids are performing.

Tuesday, July 8, 2008

Will Paying Teachers More Improve Achievement?

Recently, I wrote about John McCain's major educational plan, school choice. I wrote that school choice wasn't likely to contribute to improved literacy, and because so many kids are already in private school, it is just too expensive. Ineffective and wasteful--what a great combination! I hope Senator McCain will rethink and use federal dollars to help schools to improve so that more kids will learn to read to higher levels.

That blog led some readers to conclude that I was supporting Senator Obama's education plans. That isn't exactly right, but it is certainly true that he actually does have some education plans--and I do agree with some of them.

However, last week Senator Obama made news with an education speech that aroused boos from the National Education Association. He proposed using federal dollars to teachers who got higher test scores from their kids.

Will a federal boost to teacher salaries improve reading? I cannot find any convincing research on this issue that would allow me to answer, but I suspect this one is a loser, too.

The problem with the salary proposal is that it is about motivation. Senator Obama evidently believes that kids are struggling academically because teachers aren't trying hard enough. I know of no evidence that supports this data.

I don't believe most teachers aren't motivated, but I do think, in far too many cases, they don't know what to do to raise achievement and that many school cultures are not arranged to support or encourage the kind of teaching that we need.

As with the McCain proposal, I think this one is irrelevant to what America needs in education now. Gosh, I wish one of these guys would focus on educational results rather than distant actions so detached from educational reality.

Please Senators Obama and McCain, let's get real about reading. These kinds of proposals are just irrelevant!

Tuesday, June 24, 2008

Reading First is Dead

Two very interesting reports came across my desk yesterday--within minutes of each other.

The first one was an Education Week story that said the House Appropriations committee intended to kill off Reading First. http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2008/07/16/43budget_web.h27.html?print=1
This is no surprise, since Rep. David R. Obey, D-Wis., is the chair of that committee and he has shown a strong penchant for using his power for political reasons with little regard for educational needs. He has been anti-Reading First for a long time (mainly, I suspect, because it was proposed by a Republican), and the unfortunate management problems along with the recent interim report (see my earlier Reading First blog) make it easy for him to play politics with this. Lots of Congressmen will be sad to see Reading First go, since their home districts like it, but Obey will make this pill go down easier by expanding Title I funding (more money to schools that still aren't sure how to spend it in ways that will help kids).

A little later I received a press release from the U.S. Department of Education: NEW READING FIRST DATA FROM STATES SHOWS IMPRESSIVE GAINS IN READING PROFICIENCY.
This report claims that "students from nearly every grade and every subgroup show improvement" and goes on to report on information drawn from the states. This study provides a picture of Reading First very much at odds with the one evaluated in the recent Institute of Education Sciences study that found no reading comprehension improvement. According to these new data, kids improved in reading comprehension, second language kids improved, etc. and these gains were big. http://www.ed.gov/programs/readingfirst/performance.html

So what does all that mean? In science, when you have conflicting data, you sharpen your pencil and try to figure out how to collect new data that will resolve the differences. In politics, you hold a finger up in the air and try to determine which way the wind might be blowing. I suspect Congressman Obey's finger is going to win the day over any scientific approach. Translation: Reading First is dead. It could have withstood the corruption described in the Inspector General's report or the interim impact study--but not both!

Under the circumstances, "Reading First" is politically toxic, no matter how effective it may be or how popular with the schools. I doubt that any candidate can easily embrace Reading First (Senator Obama seems to have enough money and a large enough margin in the election that he could afford to take a risk on it, but he didn't embrace Reading First when it would have been easy to do so, so I wouldn't look for any support there). His proposals for reforming education have a lot more to do with increasing funding and improving the tests than rethinking curriculum, professional development, or interventions for struggling kids (I documented his education views in an earlier blog).

So, if I am right that Reading First is dead, where are we? I hope that everyone will think of Reading First as only a first salvo in a much needed rethinking of Title I spending. The demise of Reading First will simply mean that we need a second attempt to rethink Title I spending (one that again will provide strong guidance to states and local districts in how to expend certain additional funds in ways more likely to raise reading achievement than what the districts have been doing on their own). This new effort has to be different from Reading First, but clearly based upon lessons learned from it. That means, those aspects of Reading First that were positive (and there were many), need to be preserved--and those that were problematic need to be rethought. I described some key changes that I thought were necessary for a second attempt at using federal money to improve schools and not just fund them.

The idea of this new Reading effort would be three-fold: (1) to try to immediately and powerfully improve a small set of struggling schools (something Reading First might have been doing, but it is impossible to be sure given the conflicting evidence); (2) to serve as an immediate model for all Title I schools to start trying to emulate now (as they so clearly did with Reading First--look at the degree of emulation described in the Reading First implementation study); and (3) to ultimately identify a set of policies that will eventually become requirements for all Title I schools (we cannot continue to spend more than $15 billion of federal money each year in high poverty schools without a sound educational return for that money--Congressman Obey might think that is okay to continue like this, but it has been a meat grinder for poor children!)

Monday, February 25, 2008

Where Do the Presidential Candidates Stand on Reading Education?

This election year has not focused heavily on education, and none of the candidates have claimed they would be the education president. This is not surprising given that the top three candidates are all U.S. Senators (our presidents with educational interests tend to come from the ranks of governors). So, I’ve been curious. The past decade has seen a great deal of federal action in education with more attention on reading than ever before. So, as a reading guy I got curious…. What might we expect from these candidates if they are elected? The following is my summary of what the candidates say they will do on some key issues relevant to reading. Both Obama and Clinton have many other education-related proposals, but nothing else with much direct impact on child or adolescent literacy. I hope that you find this useful.
No Child Left Behind: Testing
Federal education law requires student testing in reading, math, and science in grades 3-12. Results must be reported for several groups of children (e.g., white, black, English learners, special education), and if schools fail to meet state standards with any of the groups there are accountability sanctions. These testing policies ensure that parents can find out how their child’s school is doing, and subgroup reporting forces schools to pay attention to the learning of these groups (a school can have acceptable average achievement, though failing with particular subgroups). However, critics have claimed the law requires too much testing, and that the failure to test some subjects, such as social studies, has reduced the educational attention to those areas while encouraging relatively more reading instruction. Also, each state sets its own standards, so the law encourages them to aim low and to use easy tests to protect schools from failing. Current policy is toughest on schools serving diverse populations and only considers levels of performance rather than amount of learning (schools that are successful at raising achievement may get punished anyway if their students still have lows levels of attainment.
Clinton: Says nothing directly about the NCLB testing policies, except that she would require the use of growth models for determining school success (meaning that she would not punish improving schools). Sounds like she supports the continued testing of reading, math, and science at grades 3-12 with no common national standard.
Obama: Intends to invest in improved tests and to expand testing into new academic areas (technology, problem solving, scientific investigation, etc.). Also wants new tests for English Language Learners. He would continue to use the tests for accountability (though his ideas of accountability are different than those in current law). Wants to fund more authentic tests (less multiple choice) that could be used for individual educational planning which would likely require more elaborate and time-consuming tests than those in current use (tests for individual decisions generally have to be longer than those for school decisions; the examples that he provides all take longer than typical school tests). He supports the continued testing of reading, math, and science at grades 3-12 with no common national standard (albeit with new tests and an expanded testing focus).
McCain: Claims that the current law holds schools to a common standard (it doesn’t as each state sets its own very different standards, and are rewarded for adopting low standards). He supports continuing current testing and reporting policies, apparently without change.
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No Child Left Behind: Reading First
A major innovation in No Child Left Behind was the creation of Reading First. This program provided $1 billion per year to low achieving schools to upgrade their reading instruction in grades K-3. The program required schools to provide extensive professional development for teachers, to adopt instructional programs, to monitor children’s learning, and to provide instructional interventions to keep kids from falling behind. All of these activities had to follow the research findings of the National Reading Panel. The law was controversial both because of its high level or prescriptiveness (most federal education law provides dollars but no guidance) and because of corruption in the administration of the program. Nevertheless, research has shown that Reading First has been a particularly effective program in improving children’s reading skills. In 2007, Congress trimmed the funding of this program by 75%.
Clinton: She is silent about the continuation or expansion of this program.
Obama: He is silent about the continuation or expansion of this program.
McCain: He is silent about the continuation or expansion of this program.
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No Child Left Behind: Early Reading First
Another innovative program from NCLB is Early Reading First which focuses on reading improvement efforts for preschools. This effort provides funding to preschools to upgrade their efforts to help young children to make progress in reading and language (including professional development for teachers, adoption of curriculum, and monitoring children’s learning). Research has found these programs to be effective.
Clinton: She is silent about the continuation or expansion of this program.
Obama: He is silent about the continuation or expansion of this program.
McCain: He is silent about the continuation or expansion of this program.
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No Child Left Behind: Striving Readers
No Child Left Behind provided no specific support for reading programs for grades 4-12 (schools could use Title I money to support reading innovations, but the law doesn’t require that nor are there any designated funds for reading). In 2005, a tiny program was added to support adolescent literacy efforts (only about $30 million—supporting only 8 school districts in the nation). In 2007, during the NCLB reauthorization debates, a bipartisan group of Senators and Congressman called for a $3 billion effort to increase adolescent literacy performance.
Clinton: She is silent about the continuation or expansion of this program.
Obama: He is silent about the continuation or expansion of this program.
McCain: He is silent about the continuation or expansion of this program.
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No Child Left Behind: Accountability
One of the most controversial aspects of NCLB has been its accountability standards. Schools are required to meet learning standards established by their states and if they fail to do so, there are various requirements that the schools must meet. For example, failing schools have to allow parents to move their children to more successful schools (and the federal support for these students goes with them), and if failing schools have to provide afterschool tutoring for the struggling students (no special money is offered to pay for this tutoring, but schools can use their federally supplied Title I dollars for this purpose). To prevent their schools from failing, states have been lowering their educational standards and schools have increased their focus on improving test performance.
Clinton: She would change the standards now used to judge school success, by allowing schools to be evaluated on the amount of learning gains rather than absolute level of performance (which means there would not be sanctions against schools that are successfully raising children’s performance levels). Otherwise she has not called for changes to the current accountability approaches.
Obama: He wants to recast accountability law to provide failing schools with added federal support. Either plans to no longer require allowing students to transfer out of failing schools or to keep this but to continue to provide their federal funding to the failing school after the children leave. Not clear whether schools would be required to take any specific action to try to increase student success (including whether schools would still have to offer tutoring). One exception to this approach appears to be additional accountability standards for high schools with regard to graduating English language learners.
McCain: His major theme is school choice and apparently he intends no changes in the accountability aspects of this law.
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No Child Left Behind: Funding
A frequent complaint of critics has been that NCLB has not been adequately funded to accomplish its laudatory goals. Although federal funding for education was increased under NCLB, the dollars committed to the program has never matched the authorization that Congress provided.
Clinton: She is calling to increase NCLB funding by $8.6 billion for Title I.
Obama: He is not specific in his proposals about NCLB funding, though he decries the lack of sufficient resources, and one presumes he is for full funding of NCLB.
McCain: He says nothing about the amount of educational funding. Presumably he supports neither increases nor decreases in school funding.
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School Choice
Some claim low school performance is due to the fact that public schools are a monopoly: children have to go to the schools that they are assigned to. Federal money supports children in public schools, but not if they are enrolled in private schools. Supporters of school choice would like a system more like the one that exists with universities (federal support for these students follows the students wherever they choose to go). A major problem with this approach is that there 13 million children (K-12) already enrolled in private schools, and these students would immediately become eligible for federal support (representing either a major increase in federal dollars or a major reduction on per-child expenditures). Another concern is that there are not likely to be quality alternatives available in many high poverty communities (especially in rural areas).
Clinton: Takes no specific stand on school choice in her education policies, but she is likely to oppose the expansion of choice options (school unions oppose it and she is supported by AFT). Apparently would continue the NCLB requirement that failing schools allow choice.
Obama: Takes no specific stand on school choice in his education policies, but he is likely to oppose the expansion of choice options. Might not continue the NCLB requirement that failing schools allow choice (or would allow it to continue, but without the negative funding consequences).
McCain: He wants to increase parent choice options dramatically. Although his proposal lacks specificity, it sounds like he would work for a system that attached federal funding to students rather than to schools (meaning that a child could take the money with him/her to private schools, including religious schools and even to the parents themselves in the case of homeschoolers).
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Preschool Education
The federal government has provided funding for preschool education since the 1960s (the major effort has been in Head Start, which provides support for preschool programs for children from low income families). Research has demonstrated the value of early education and recent efforts have been upgrading Head Start curriculum and professional development to increase their emphasis on literacy and language development.
Clinton: She calls for $10 billion in additional support for preschool education including expanding prekindergarten programs, Head Start, programs aimed at children from birth to 3, and nurse home visitation programs. These would be matching funds and states would have to expand their efforts to or already have expanded efforts to obtain this funding. Proposes various mechanisms and requirements for supporting the quality of these programs.
Obama: He calls for $10 billion in additional support for preschool education including expanding prekindergarten programs, Head Start, programs aimed at children from birth to 3, and nurse home visitation programs. These would be matching funds and states would have to expand their efforts to or already have expanded efforts to obtain this funding. Proposes various mechanisms and requirements for supporting the quality of these programs.
McCain: He is silent on preschool education. Presumably he would continue with current programs, but proposes no initiatives to expand, diminish, or improve these efforts.
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Teacher Education
There is an impending teacher shortage in America, and some areas (math, science, etc.) the shortage has already hit. Additionally, there is widespread dissatisfaction with the quality of teachers. Most teachers leave the profession within five years. There have been many recent efforts to create alternative certification routes (for instance, programs to allow career changers to bypass certification requirements). The adequacy of such efforts is in dispute.
Clinton: Wants to provide $500 million for programs to recruit and retain teachers to high poverty areas. Supports efforts to provide rewards to teachers who demonstrate an ability to raise the academic achievement of poverty children. Not clear how this funding would be distributed among the various efforts to improve recruitment, coaching/mentoring, reform of teacher education, and rewards for successful teachers.
Obama: Wants to provide $100 million to expand scholarships for students who complete teacher education, including full forgiveness of the federal support for those who teach in urban schools for four years. Would require certification of all teacher education institutions, and create teacher residency programs to try to steer 30,000 teachers to urban areas. Would provide $1 billion to support teacher mentoring. Calls for increased teacher salaries, but not clear that he has any specific plan in this regard. Indicates that he would provide an unspecified amount of funding for career ladder programs.
McCain: Silent on teacher preparation efforts. Apparently has no plans for federal initiatives to expand on availability of teachers or to improve quality of teachers or teacher education programs.
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Other School Improvement Initiatives with Possible Impact on Literacy Learning
Clinton: Wants to provide $1 billion for tutoring and mentoring programs for middle school and high school students. Supports continuation of current after school programs.
Obama: Wants to provide $200 million for increasing amount of instructional time. Wants to also expand summer and after school programs, and create new middle school programs to create professional development and coaching programs to help students do better in math and reading; unspecified amounts of money for those efforts. He proposes an unspecified amount of additional funding for bilingual education classes.
McCain: Proposes no new educational programming, nor changes in existing programs.
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Educational Research
One of the big changes in federal support for education during the past decade has been the requirement for greater application of research to policy. This has entailed changing the research infrastructure by restructuring the education research arm of the Department of Education, increasing the focus on research into what works using experimental studies, large scale syntheses of educational research, and requiring the use of research-based practices in federally-supported education programs.
Clinton: She is silent on the support and use of educational research.
Obama: Calls for doubling the current annual educational research budget by the end of his first term (this would be an increase of $260 million per year). He indicates that this is for research into what works and throughout his proposals he calls for the use of “evidence-based” and “research-based” approaches.
McCain: He is silent on the support and use of educational research.